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- 2 - AL/2017/09/T-I
- 3 - AL/2017/09/T-II
Gs;spapLk; jpl;lk;
gFjp (II) A ( mikg;Gf; fl;Liu )
1) A. i. a. 1. iwNghR nty;yk; 2. mbdpd; iejurd; fhuk; 3. 3 nghRNgw;Wf; $l;lk;
b. 1. tpiuthfr; rf;jpia ntsptPly; / jdpj;j jhf;fj;jpd; %yk; rf;jpia ntsptpLjy;
2. tpiuthf kPsj;Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gLjy;
3. fyj;jpDs; mirAkpay;Gilajhf ,Uj;jy;
c. 30.6 kJ
ii. GNuhfupNahw;wpf; ,y; tl;lTU DNA a+fupNahw;wpf;fpy; Neu;Nfhl;L DNA
GNuhfupNahw;wpy; epu;thzkhdJ a+fupNahw;wpy; `p];Nuhd; Gujj;Jld; Nrue;jJ
GNuhfupNahw;wpy; introns ,y;iy a+fupNahw;wpy; cz;L
GNuhfupNahw;wpy; FopaTUtpy; mike;Js;sJ fUtpy; my;yJ
rpy Gd;dq;fq;fspy; mike;jJ VjhtJ (2)
iii. %yq;fspd; njhlnuhOq;fpy; gpwg;Gupikj; jfty;fisf; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jk; mw;wy;
epug;Gg;gl;biffisf; nfhz;bUe;J Rakhf jw; gfu;g;gilAk; Mw;wy;
fl;likg;G khw;wq;fSf;Fl;gl;L mupjhf tpfhuj;ij cz;lhffy;
cWjpahd mfpyj;Jf;Fupa vspa fl;likg;igf; nfhz;bUj;jy;.
ngUk;ghyhd mq;fpfspy; tpahgpj;Jf; fhzg;gLjy;
iv. a. iwNghNrhkpy; Gujj;njhFg;Gf;Fupa ];jhdj;ij toq;Fjy; /
iwNghNrhkpy;mkpNdhmkpyq;fspd; xd;W Nru;jYf;Fupa ];jhdj;ij toq;Fjy; /
iwNghNrhkpd; fl;likg;ig Mf;Fjy;
b. CAU
v. 1. RNA Polymerase
2. Restriction Endonuclease
B. i. i. capuq;fpfs; ahTk; xd;W my;yJ gyfyq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sd.
xU mq;fpapd; fl;likg;Gf;Fupa > njhopw;ghl;Lf;Fupa mbg;gilahd myF fyk;
fyq;fs; ahTk; Kd;du; fhzg;gl;l fyq;fspy; ,Ue;Nj Njhd;wpAs;sd.
x3
x3
x1
x2
x4
x1
x1
x1
x1
x17
x3
- 4 - AL/2017/09/T-II
ii. a. nghRNghypg;gpl;Lfspd; thw;gFjpfs; gf;fj;jpw;Fg; gf;fkhd mirT
b. fyj;jpd; ,af;fj;jpw;Fhpa vy;iy.
ePu;> mad;fs;. rpy Nrjd %yf;$Wfis CL nry;y mDkjpj;jy;
fopTg; gjhu;j;jq;fs; ntspNaw;wg;gliyr; rPuhf;Fjy;
fyj;jpDs; gpurhuzr; rkepiyiag; NgZjy;
thq;fpapD}lhfj; jfty;fisg; ngw;W fyq;fSf;fpilNaahd
nraw;ghLfis ,iaghf;f rkpf;iQfisf; flj;Jjy;
iii. a. Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpy; Rthrj;jpd;NghJ ntspNaw;wg;gl;l fhgdPnuhl;irl;bd;
fdtsTf;Fk; cs;nsLf;fg;gl;l xl;rprd; fdtsTf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l tpfpjk;
b. Rthr khdp
iv. a. ,iokzpapd; jhak; b. NADH. FADH
2
v. a. capu;f;fyq;fspy; njhFf;fg;gLfpd;w fyq;fspy; cl;Nrgj;jhf;fq;fisAk;
mtNrgj;jhf; fq;fisAk; Cf;Ftpf;fpd;w NfhsTUg;Gujq;fs; /
capu;f;fyq;fspy; ,aw;ifahfj; njhFf;fg;gLfpd;w fyq;fspy; mDNrgj;
jhf;fq;fis my;yJ capupay; jhf;fq;fis Cf;Ftpf;ff; $ba NfhsTUg;
Gujq;fs;
b. Vtw;rf;jpiaf; Fiwj;jy;
c. fl;likg;GuPjpapy; fPo;g;gilia xj;j xU Nru;it nehjpaj;jpd; capu;g;G
epiyaj;Jld; jw;fhypfkhf ,ize;J nehjpaj;jhf;f tPjj;ijf; Fiwf;fpd;w
gjhu;j;jk;
C. i. 1. fyr;Rtupy; ngg;upNlhfpisf;fid cilait
2. xNunahUtifahd RNA Polymerase nehjpaj;ijAilait
3. Gujj;njhFg;G Nghiky; nkjpNahdpDld; Muk;gpf;Fk;.
4. Ez;Zapu; nfhy;ypfSf;F czu;jpwd; cilait. (VjhtJ 3)
ii. 1. a,c 2. b, c 3. d, h,j 4. d,g 5. d
iii. 1. Pterophyta 2. Coniferophyta
iv. 1. Ascomycota 2. Chytridiomycota 3. Rhodophyta
x1
x5
x1
x3
x1
x1
x1
x16
x3
x2
x3
x10
x18
17 + 16 + 18 = 51 x 2 = 102 Max = 100 Marks
- 5 - AL/2017/09/T-II
2) A. i. kdpjdpd; tapw;wiwf;Fopapy; gpupnkd;wfl;bw;F cldbf; fPohf tapw;wiwf;Fopapd;
,lJ Nky; fhy; gFjpapy; mike;Js;sJ.
ii. a. jirg;gilapy; rupTj; jirg;gil fhzg;gLjy;
b. 1. jiyikf;fyq;fs; 2. Rtu;f;fyq;fs; 3. rPjf;fOj;Jf;fyq;fs;
c. ePupd; %yk; nehjpaj;jhf;fq;fSf;F Clfj;ij toq;fy;
HCl Ez;zq;fpfis mopj;jy;
HCL Pro rennin I rennin Mfkhw;Wjy;
HCl ngg;rpNdh[id ngg;rpdhf khw;Wjy;
jaypd; my;yJ ckpo;ePu; mkpNyirj; njhopw;ghlw;wjhf;Fk;.
mkpy Clfj; jpid toq;Fk; my;yJ ngg;rpdpd; njhopw;ghl;Lf;Fupa jho; pH
,id toq;Fk;.
rPjk; %yk; czit krfpl cjTjy; / fhaq;fspypUe;J ,iug;igr; Rtiug;
ghJfhj;jy;
cs;sPl;Lf;fhuzp tpw;wkpd; B
12
,d; cwpQ;rypy; cjTk;
iii. <uy;thapdhsk;
iv. a. Sodium tauro cholate , Sodium Glycocholate
b. 1. nfhOg;igf; Fok;ghf;fy;
2. nfhOg;ig mfj;JwpQ;r cjTjy;
v. 1. Scretin 2. CCK PZ
B. i. a. mit jhtuq;fspd; fl;likg;Gf; $Wfshff; fhzg;gLtJld; jhtuq;fspd;
tho;f;if tl;lj;ijg; g+u;j;jp nra;a mtrpakhfj; Njitg;gLk; %yfq;fs;
b. 1. MoO
4
2-
2. H
2
BO
3
-
/ B
4
O
7
2-
ii. 1. fy;rpak; 2. nghl;lhrpak; / FNshupd;
iii. a. ePu; %yf;$Wfs; mtw;wpd; ,af;fg;gz;G rf;jp njhlu;ghf nfhz;Ls;s
mstplf;$ba mirAk; Mw;wy;
b. ntg;gepiy> / mKf;fk;> / ePupy; fiue;Js;s gjhu;j;jk;> / ePu; tpUg;Gg; gjhu;j;jk;
x1
x1
x3
x3
x1
x2
x2
x2
x15
x1
x3
x2
x1
x2
- 6 - AL/2017/09/T-II
iv. a. fho;f;fyd; %yfk;
b. 1. ePu; fdpAg;Gf; flj;jy;
2. nghwpKiwahfj; jhq;Fjy;
v. 1. Apoplast 2. Symplast 3. Gd;ntw;wplg;ghij
vi. xspAs;s NghJ K
+
capu;g;ghd Kiwapy; fhtw;fyq;fspDs; cs;nsLf;fg;gLk;.
fhtw;fyq;fspy; fiua mOj;jk; mjpfupg;gjhy; ePuOj;jk; Fiwa gpurhuzk;
%yk; fhtw; fyq;fspDs; ePu; cl;GFtjhy;
fhtw;fyq;fspy; tPf;fk; mjpfupf;Fk;
,J ,iytha;fs; jpwj;jiy Vw;gLj;Jk;
,uT Neuj;jpy; gpd;Kfj;jhf;fj;jpdhy; fhtw;fyq;fspy; ,Ue;J K
+
ntspNaWk;
,iytha;fs; %lg;gLk;.
C. i. a. xw;iwf;Fopak; b. 2 - 10 %
ii. a. Epicardium, Myocardium, Endo cardium
b. 1. Kidfspy; fpisj;j ehu;fs;
2. ,ilGFe;j tl;lj;jl;Lf;fs;
iii. a. ,ja mbg;gpid Muk;gpj;J itj;J mjd; mbg;gilr; re;jj;ijj; jPu;khdpf;fpd;w
fl;likgG
b. Nkw;ngUehsk;jpwf;Fk; thapYf;F mz;ikahf
tyJ ,jar;Nrhizaiwapd; gpw;Gwr; Rtupy;
iv. ,U$u;thy;G %lg;gLjy;
Kf;$u;thy;G %lg;gLjy;
ngUehb thy;Gfs; jpwe;J ,U ngUehbapDs;Sk; FUjp nry;Yjy;
v. a. MwhtJ Nrhb
b. Reptilia. Amphibia
x1
x2
x3
x4
x20
x2
x3
x2
x1
x2
x3
x2
x15
15+ 20 + 15 = 50 x 2 = 100 Max
- 7 - AL/2017/09/T-II
3) A. i. a. euk;Gf;fzj;jhf;fk; flj;jg;glhj ntspf;fhT euk;GKisapd; KjYU nkd;rt;tpd;
ntsp cs; gug;GfspilNa fhzg;gLk; kpd; mOj;j NtWghL my;yJ fy mOj;j
NtWghL.
b. 1. fyG;Gwj;jptj;Jld; xg;gpLifapy; fyj;jpDs; fhzg;gLk; mad; nrwpT
tpj;jpahrk;
2. K
+
, Na
+
vd;gtw;iwj; Nju;e;J GftpLk; jd;ik nfhz;l KjYUnkd;rt;T.
3. Na
+
, K
+
gk;Gjy;
ii. gupT euk;Gj; njhFjpapd; jpul;Lf;f Kd;dhd euk;G ehu;fs; Kz;zhdpd; neQ;R> ehupg;
gFjpapypUe;Jk;. guguptpy; %isf;fhk;G> jpUntd;Gg; gFjpapypUe;Jk; vOfpd;wd.
gupT euk;Gj; njhFjpapy; jpul;Lf;F Kd;dhd euk;G ehu;fs; FWfpait guguptpy;
ePz;lit
gupT euk;Gj; njhFjpapy; jpul;Lf;F gpd;dhd euk;G ehu;fs; ePz;lit guguptpy;
FWfpait
iii. 1. ,Wf;FfpwJ / rpWePu; ntspNaw;wj;ijf; Fiwf;fpwJ
2. Ruj;jiy epNuhjpf;fpwJ
3. fz;kzpia tupar; nra;fpwJ / fz;zpDs; GFk; xspapd; msit mjpfupf;fpwJ
4. RUf;fj;ij mjpfupf;fpwJ
iv. a. mrw;iwy; Nfhypd; 2. Nehu;mjpuPdyPd;
b. Nfhypd; vRj;jNuR nehjpaj;jpdhy; Nfhypd; MfTk; mrw;iwy; MfTk;
gpupf;fg;gLtjhy;
v. rpye;jp tiyAUf; fPo; ntspapy;
vi. a. vspa J}z;lYf;F rhu;gstpy; khwhjJk;> cldbahdJkhd ,r;irapd;wpa
J}z;lw;NgW
b. ePs;tisaikatpioak;
B. i. vd;G jhaj;jpy; FUjp;f;fyd; CLUty; cz;L frpapioaj;jpy; ,y;iy
vd;gpy; MNtrpd; njhFjp cz;L frpapioaj;jpy; ,y;iy
vd;gpy; Nthy;f;kdpd; fhy;tha; cz;L frpapioaj;jpy; ,y;iy
vd;gpy; vd;gUk;gu;f;fyk;> vd;Gilf;Fk; fyk; cz;L frpapioaj;jpy; frpapioaf;
Fopak; cz;L.
x1
x3
x3
x4
x2
x1
x1
x1
x1
x3
- 8 - AL/2017/09/T-II
ii. guL> fizf;fhy; cs;nsd;G> fizf;fhy; ntspnad;G
iii. ePs;gf;f FWf;F tpw;fs;
nrq;Fj;jhff; fhzg;gLjy;
iv. a. 1. H tyak; 2. A gl;b 3. I gl;b 4. Z NfhL
b. P - Myosin Q Actin
v. a. tOf;Fk; ,iof; nfhs;if
b. Troponin Tropomyosin rpf;fiy efu;j;Jtjd; %yk; Actin ,ioapd; kNahrpd;
jiy ,izAk; jhdq;fis ntspg;gLj;jp FWf;Fg;ghyq;fs; Njhd;w cjTjy;
C. i. 1. tpijNkw;wpzpT
2. Rf;fpyg;Glfk;
3. gNhg;gpNahf;Foha;
4. fUg;ig
ii. 1. fUt+z; nkd;rt;Tld; tpe;jpd; jiy ,izjy;
2. fUt+z; nkd;rt;tpypUe;J nehjpaq;fs; Cw;wg;gLjy;
3. Nkw;gl;ilf;Fupa jhf;fk;
iii. a. Nfhupad;> mye;Njhap
b. Rh fhuzp> ntt;NtW FUjp ,dq;fs; vd;gtw;why; Kjpu; %yTUtpd; FUjp
xUq;nfhl;Ltijj; jLj;jy;
jhapd; FUjpr; Rw;Nwhl;lj;jpd; cau;FUjp mKf;fj;jpy; Kjpu; %yTUitg;
ghJfhj;jy;
iv. 1. Oestrogen 2. Progesterone 3. hCG
v. 1. nfhNdhupah 2. rpgpypR
x3
x2
x4
x2
x2
x1
x17
x4
x3
x2
x2
x3
x2
17+ 17 + 16 = 50 x 2 = 100 Marks
- 9 - AL/2017/09/T-II
4) A. i. xU mq;fpapd; gpwg;Gupikg; gjhu;j;jj;jpy; my;yJ [PNdhkpy; rLjpahf> vOe;jgbahf
Vw;gLfpd;w jiyKiwAupik milaf; $ba / vjpu;fhy re;jjpf;Ff; flj;jg;glf;
$ba khw;wk;
ii. 1. DNA kPsr;nra;jypd; NghJ Vw;gLk; jtWfs;.
2. xLf;fw;gpuptpd; FWf;Fg;gupkhw;wj;jpd;NghJ Vw;gLk; jtWfs;
3. epw%uj;jq;fs; NrhbNru;jypd; NghJ Vw;gLk; jtWfs; fhuzkhf epw%u;j;j
vz;zpf;if apy; NtWgLjy; / epw%u;j;jf; fl;likg;gpy; khw;wk; Vw;gLjy;
iii. 1. mupthl;fyf; FUjpr; Nrhif 2. jyrPkpah 3. FUjpAiwhNeha;
iv. a. 1. ngupa Fbj;njhif
2. vOe;jkhdkhd ,df;fyg;G epfo;jy;
3. tpfhuk; epfohik
4. Nju;T epfohik
5. FbtuT Fbafy;T eilngwhik ( VjhtJ 4 )
b. q
2
= 0.04 q = 0.2
P + q = 1 P = 0.8 / 2 Pq = 2 x0.8 x 0.2 = 0. 16 = 16 %
v. a. ntspaftpUj;jpahjy; Kiwapdhy; gy;ypdEfepiy. gpwg;gupikg; gy;tifik
vd;gtw;wpd; mjpfupg;gpdhy;; vr;rq;fs; ngw;Nwhiu tpl rpwe;jjhf mikjy;
b. Vr;rq;fspy; tPupak; my;yJ fyg;Gud; Fiwtiljy;
vi. 1. cau; ,dg; ngUf;Fk; mw;wy;
2. khwhf;Fbj;njhifasT
3. Fbj;njhifapYs;s gy;tifik
B. i. ftdj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gl;l / mr;RWj;jYf;Fs;shf;fg;gl;l ,dq;fs; njhlu;ghd
gjpNtL.
my;yJ cyfshtpa Kiwapy; jhtuq;fs;> tpyq;F ,dq;fspd; fhg;G
me;j];Jf;fs; / ftdj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gl;l me;j];Jf;fs; njhlu;ghd gjpNtL
ii. 1. ,aw;ifapy; mope;Jtpl;l my;yJ tdtho;epiyapy; mope;Jtpl;l(EW)
2. neUf;fbahd Mgj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gl;l(CR)
3. Mgj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gl;l(EN)
4. ftdj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gl;l( VU)
x1
x3
x4
x3
x2
x1
x1
x3
x1
x4
- 10 - AL/2017/09/T-II
iii. 1. Ge;jy Nrpag; g+q;fh 2. khJfq;if ruzhyak; / MidtpOe;jhd
Fsruzhyak;> /
tq;fhiy ruzhyak;> / Fkz <uepyk;
iv. Loris tardigradis (Slender Loris) - Njthq;F /
Otter - ePu; eha; / Leopard - rpWj;ijg; Gyp ( VjhtJ 2 )
v. a. mtw;wpd; mD$yq;fis vjpu;fhy re;jjpapdUk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L
jw;fhy rKjhak; tsq;fisf; Fiwe;j Nrjj;Jld; gad;gLj;Jjy; my;yJ
tsq;fis mit ntWikahfhjtifapy; kpf ePz;l fhyj;jpw;F
cgNahfg;gLj;jf;$ba tpjj;jpy; gad;gLj;jy;
b. 1. kz; 2. ed;dPu; / J}aePu; 3. J}atsp
vi. 1. fhNghdp ngu]; 2. Ngu;kpad; 3. Triassic
C. i. a. cztpYs;s Ez;zq;fpfs; rpytw;wpd; mDNrgj;njhopw;ghL fhuzkhf mtw;wpd;
clypw;Fg; Gwj;Nj Ruf;fg;gL;k; GweQ;Rfs; cztpy; Nru;f;fg;gLtjhy; cztpy;
er;Rj; jd;ik Vw;gLjy;
b. 1. Clostridium botulinum - euk;G eQ;R eQ;R
2. Staphylococcus aureus - Fly ;eQ;R
ii. 1. pH 2.<uypg;G cs;slf;fk;. 3. Nghrizg; nghUs; cs;slf;fk;.
4. cztpd; capupay; fl;likg;G
iii. Ez;zq;fpfs; czTg;nghUl;fisr; nrd;wiltijj; jLj;jy;. mjhtJ mOfyw;w
jd;ikia Vw;gLj;jy;. ( Asepsis )
cztpy; Vw;fdNt fhzg;gLfpd;w Ez;zq;fpfis mopj;jy; / mfw;wy;.
cztpy; Ez;zq;fpfs; tsu;r;rpailtijAk; njhopw;gLtijAk; jLj;jy;
iv. 1. Coliforms fhzg;gl;lhy; Vida Nehahf;fpfSk; fhzg;gl ,lKz;L
2. Lactose I nehjpf;f itj;J 48 kzpj;jpahyj;jpDs; thAit
Njhw;Wtpf;ff;$baJ.
v. fhw;W thopf;Fupa my;yJ mkaj;jpw;Nfw;w fhw;wpd;wp thopf;Fupajhf ,Uj;jy;
gram negative tifahf ,Uj;jy;
mftpj;jpfisg; gpwg;gpf;Fkhw;wy;
x2
x2
x1
x3
x3
x1
x4
x4
x3
x2
x2
18+ 16 + 16 = 50 x 2 = 100 Marks
- 11 - AL/2017/09/T-II
gFjp II (B) ( fl;Liu tpdh ) tpilfs;
1) tiff;Fupa g+f;Fk; jhtunkhd;wpd; tho;f;if tl;lj;ijr; RUf;fkhf tpgupj;J g+f;fhj
jhtuq;f spy; ,Ue;J g+f;Fk; jhtuq;fspd; $u;g;Gr; nrad;Kiwapy; jiu tho;f;iff;F
,irthf;fk; ngw;w tpjj;ijr; RUf;fkhf tpgupf;f?
tho;f;if tl;lk;
1. g+f;Fk; jhtuq;fspy; xUkba Gzupj;jhtur; re;jjpAk;
2. ,Ukba tpj;jpj; jhtur; re;jjpAk; nfhz;l
3. re;jjpg; guptpUj;jp fhzg;gLfpwJ.
4. tpj;jpj; jhtur; re;jjp Ml;rpahdJ
5. RahjPdkhdJ.
6. ed;F tpUj;jpaile;j jz;L> Ntu;> ,iy vd;gtw;iwf; nfhz;lJ.
7. ,dg;ngUf;f mq;fkhf g+f;fs; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
8. MzfkhdJ Nfruq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
9. Nfruq;fspy; ,io kfue;jf; $L vd;gd fhzg;gLfpwJ.
10. kfuef; $l;by; kfue;jg;igfs; cz;L
11. kfue;jg;igfspYs;s kfue;jj; jha;f;fyq;fspy;
12. xLf;fw; gpupT epfoe;J
13. kfue;j kzpfs; cUthf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
14. kfue;jf; $L ntbj;J kfue;j kzpfs; ntspNaWk;
15. ngz;zfk; #y;tpj;jpiyfshy; MdJ
16. ,jpy; Fwp> jk;gk; #yfk; vd;gd fhzg;gLk;.
17. #yf miwfspDs; #y;tpj;Jf;fs; fhzg;gLk;;/ #y;tpj;Jf;fs; ntspf;fhl;lg;gl;bUg;gjpy;iy
18. #y;tpj;jpDs; ngz;Gzupj;jhtuk; fhzg;gLk;
19. ,J Kisag;ig vdg;gLk;
20. ,jpy; %d;W vjpubf; fyq;fs;
21. ,uz;L cjtp toq;fpf;fyq;fs;
22. xU Kl;il
23. ,uz;L KidTf;fUf;fs; / Jizf;fU vd;gd fhzg;gLk;
24. kfue;jr; Nru;f;ifapd;NghJ kfue;j kzpfs; Fwpia milfpd;wd.
25. kfue;j kzpfs; Fwpapy; Kisj;J Mz;Gzupj;jhtuk; cUthFk;
26. Mz;Gzupj;jhtuj;jpy; ,uz;L Mz;Gzupfs; fhzg;gLk;
27. kfue;jf;Foha; jk;gj;jpD}L tsu;r;rpaile;J
28. #y;tpj;jpDs; nrd;W Kisag;igia milAk;
29. ,J ,urhad J}z;L jpUg;g mirthFk;
30. Kisag;igapDs; kfue;jf;Fohapd; Rtu; ntbj;J Mz;Gzupfs; tpLtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
- 12 - AL/2017/09/T-II
31. xU Mz;Gzup Kl;ilAld; fUf;fl;b
32. ,Ukbakhd Efj;ijAk;
33. kw;iwa Mz;Gzup Jizf;fUTld; / ,uz;L KidTf;fUf;fSld; fUf;fl;Ltjdhy;
34. Kk;kbakhd tpj;jftpioaj;ijAk; Njhw;Wtpf;fpd;wd.
35. ,J ,ul;ilf; fUf;fl;ly; vdg;gLk;.
36. fUf;fl;lypd; gpd; #yfk; gokhf tpUj;jpailAk;
37. #y;tpj;Jf;fs; tpj;Jf;fshFk;
38. Efk; KisakhFk;.
39. tpj;jftpioaf; fU tpj;jftpioaj;ij MF;Fk;
40. tpj;Jf;fs; Kisj;J / Kisak; tpUj;jpaile;J tpj;jpj;jhtuk; kPz;Lk; Njhd;Wk;
jiutho;f;if ,irthf;fq;fs;
41. fhopy; fyd;fs; fhzg;gLjy;
42. cupaj;jpy; nea;aupf;Foha; Njhoikf;fyq;fs; fhzg;gLjy;
43. g+f;fspy; ,ypq;f mq;fq;fs; ed;F ghJfhf;fg;gl;bUj;jy;
44. g+f;fspy; mad; kfue;jr; Nru;f;iff;fhd ,irthf;fq;fs; ,Uj;jy;
45. khtpj;jpf;fyd; ftrj;jpdhy; #og;gl;bUj;jy; / #y;tpj;J cUthf;fg;gLjy;
46. RahjPd Mz; / ngz; Gzupj;jhtuq;fs; ,y;yhjpUj;jy;
47. kfue;jf; Foha; Mz;Gzupfisf; nfhz;L nry;yy; / ePupd; cjtpapd;wpf; fUf;fl;ly;
eilngWjy;
48. mirtw;w Mz;Gzupfs; cUthf;fg;gLjy;
49. ,ul;ilf; fUf;fl;ly; eilngWjy; / fUf;fl;lypd; gpd; Kisaj;Jf;nfd czT
Nrkpf;fg;gl;bUj;jy;
50. goj;jpDs; tpj;Jf;fs; mike;jpUj;jy;
51. tpj;jpDs; Kisak; ghJfhf;fg;gl;bUj;jy;
52. goq;fspYk;> tpj;Jf;fspYk; guk;gYf;nfd tpidj;jpwdhd nghwpKiwfs; ,Uj;jy;
53. gy;yhz;L thOfpd;w tpj;Jf;fs; Njhd;Wjy;
2) kdpjdpd; xU rPu;j;jplepiyapy; mfQ;Ruf;Fk; njhFjpapd; gq;fspg;ig tpsf;Ff?
1. kdpjdpd; mfr; #oiy khwpypahfg; NgZk; nrad;Kiw xU rPu;j;jplepiy vdg;gLk;
2. kdpjdpd; xU rPu;j;jplepiyapd;NghJ ,urhad $Wfshd FUjpf; FSf;NfhRr; nrwpT
3. mad;fs;
4. ePu;
5. cly; ntg;gepiy Mfpad khwpypahfg; Ngz cjTfpd;wd.
VjhtJ 50 x 3 = 150 Gs;spfs;
- 13 - AL/2017/09/T-II
6. kdpjdpd; FUjpapy; epak FSf;NfhRr; nrwpT 8- -120 mg / 100 ml FUjp MFk;
7. epak kl;lj;ij tpl FUjpf;FSf;;NfhR nrwpT mjpfupf;ifapy; FSf;NfhR mjpfupg;ig
czUk; thq;fpfs; J}z;lg;gLtjdhy;
8. rijapapd; ,yq;ffhd; rpWjPtf; $l;lj;jpd;
fyq;fspdhy; ,d;Rypd; Ruf;fg;gLjy;
mjpfupf;fg;gLk;.
9. FSf;fNfhd; Ruj;jy; epNuhjpf;fg;gLk;.
10. ,d;Rypd; FUjpapD}L flj;jg;gl;L jirf;fyj;ij> <uy;fyq;fis
njhLg;gpioaf;fyq;fis mile;J nraw;gLk;.
11. ,f;fyq;fspd; fynkd;rt;tpd; FSf;NfhR cl;GftpLk; ,ay;ig mjpfupf;Fk;.
12. ,jdhy; FUjpapYs;s Nkyjpf FSf;NfhR ,f;fyq;fis milAk;.
13. <uy;fyq;fspYk; jirf;fyq;fspYk; FSf;NfhR fpisf;Nfh[dhf khw;wg;gLk;.
14. ,f;fpisf;Nfh[d; <uy; fyq;fspYk; jirf;fyq;fspYk; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jg;gLk;.
17. ,d;Rypd; <uy;> jirf;fyq;fs; cl;gl mNdfkhd fyq;fspNy FSf;Nfhrpd;
fyr;Rthrj;ij mjpfupf;fr; nra;J . FSf;Nfhir fhgdPnuhl;irl;lhfTk;> ePuhfTk;
cilf;fj; J}z;Lk;.
18. nfhOg;gf;fyq;fspy; ,d;Rypd; %yk; FSf;NfhR nfhOg;gkpykhfTk;> nfhOg;ghfTk;
khw;wg; gLk;. nfhOg;G nfhOg;Gf;fyq;fspy; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jg;gLk;.
19. fpisf;Nfh[d; FSf;Nfhrhf cilf;fg;gLtij ,d;Rypd; jLj;J FUjpapy; FSf;NfhR
mjpfupf;fhky; jLf;fpwJ.
20. ,r;nraw;ghLfshy; mjpfupj;j FUjpf;FSf;NfhR kl;lk; Fiwe;J epakkl;lk;
Vw;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,d;Rypd; Ruj;jy; epNuhjpf;fg;gLk;.. FSf;NfhR mjpfupg;ig czUk;
thq;fpfs; J}z;lg;gLtJ epWj;jg;gLk;.
21. epakkl;lj;ijtpl FUjpf; FSf;NfhRkl;lk; Fiwtilifapy; FSf;NfhRf; Fiwit
czUk;thq;fpfs; J}z;lg;gLtjdhy;
22. rijapapd; ,yq;ffhd; rpWjPtf; $l;lj;jpd;
fyq;fspdhy; FSf;fNfhd;
Ruf;fg;gLjy; mjpfupf;fg;gLk;.. ,jdhy; ,d;Rypd; Ruj;jy; epNuhjpf;fg;gLk;.
23. mjpuPdy; Rug;gpapdhy; mjpuPdyPd;d;>
24. ijnuhapl; Rug;gpapdhy; >ijnuhl;rpd;>
25. mjpuPdy; Nkw;gl;ilapdhy; Nfhl;bNrhy;
26. Kw;Gwf; fg;r; Rug;gpapddhy; tsu;r;rp XNkhd; Mfpad Ruf;fg;gLk;
23. ,t; XNkhd;fs; FSf;fNfhd; FUjpapD}L flj;jg;gl;L jirf;fyj;ij> <uy;fyj;ij>
nfhOg;Gf;fyj;ij milAk;.
24. <uy;> jirf;fyq;fspy; FSf;fNfhd;> mjpupdyPd; ijnuhl;rpd; tspu;r;rp XNkhd; Nghd;w
XNkhd;fspdhy; fpisf;Nfh[d; FSf;Nfhrhf khw;wg;gl;L FUjpia milAk;.
25. <uy;fyq;fspy; Nfhl;bNrhypd; J}z;lypdhy; Gujk; FSf;Nfhrhf khw;wg;gl;L FUjpia
milAk;..
- 14 - AL/2017/09/T-II
26. FSf;fNfhd; nraw;ghl;lhy; nfhOg;Gk; FSf;Nfhrhf khw;wg;gl;L FUjpia milAk;.
27. ,f;fhuzq;fspdhy; Fiwtile;j FUjpf; FSf;NfhR kl;lk; mjpfupj;J epakkl;lj;ij
milAk;.
28. XNkhd;fspd; Ruj;jy; epNuhjpf;fg;gLk;.
29. kdpjdpd; epak; cly; ntg;gepiy 36 . 8
0
C my;yJ 37
0
C MFk;
30. epak cly; ntg;gepiyia tpl cly;ntg;gepiy Fiwtilifapy; Njhypy; cs;s
FNuhNrhtpd; Kidf;Fkpo;fSk; RahjPd; euk;G Kbtplq;fSk; J}z;lg;gLtjhy;
31. guptff;fPopd; ntg;g cw;gj;jp ikak; J}zlg;gl;L
32. ijnuhl;rpd;> mjpuPdyPd; Nghd;w XNkhd;fs; Ruf;fg;gLk;
31. ,t ;XNkhd;fs; mDNrgtPjj;ij mjpfupj;J <uy;fyq;fspy; nfhOg;gpdJ xl;rpNaw;wj;ij
mjpfupf;fr; nra;tjhy; ntg;g cw;gj;jp mjpfupf;fpwJ
32. ,jdhy; Fiwtile;j ntg;gepiy mjpfupj;J epak cly; ntg;gepiy mjpfupf;fpwJ.
33. FUjpapy; ePupd; msT Fiwtilifapy; my;yJ FUjpg;gpurhuz mKf;fk;
mjpfupf;ifapy;
34. guptff;fPopYs;s gpurhuz mKf;f thq;fpfshy; czug;gLk;
35. ,jdhy; gpw;fgr; Rug;gp J}z;lg;gl;L ADH tpLtpf;fg;gLk;.
36 ,J rpWePufj;jpd; Nra;ik kbe;j FoYU>
37. Nru;f;Fk; fhd; Mfpatw;wpdJ Rtupd;ePu; cl;GftpLk; ,ay;ig mjpfupj;J
38. ePupd; kPsfj;JwpQ;riy mjpfupf;Fk;
39. cau; gpurhuzr; rpWePu; ntspNaw;wg;gLk;
40.. mjpfupj;j gpurhuz mKf;fk; Fiwe;J epakkl;lk; Vw;gLk;.
41.. gpurhuz mKf;fk; Fiwtilifapy; ADH Ruj;jy; FiwtilAk;.
42. Nra;ik kbe;j FoYUtpYk; Nru;f;Fk; fhdpYk; ePu; kpsfj;Jwpq;rg;gLtjpy;iy
43. FUjpapy; Na+
Fiwtilifapy; my;yJ FUjpaKf;fk; Fiwtilifapy; rpWePufj;jpd;
Juxta fyd;Nfhsr; rpf;fypdhy; Renin Ruf;fg;gLk;
44. ,J KjYUg;Gujkhd Angiotensinoge I Angiotensin 1 Mf khw;WfpwJ
45. ,J gpd;du; Angiotensin 2 Mfkhw;wg;gl;L mjpuPdy; Nkw;gl;ilia J}z;b
my;nlRj;jNuhidr; Ruf;fr; nra;Ak;
46. my;nlRj;jNuhd; rpWePufj;jpapd; Nra;ik kbe;j rpWFohapy; Na
+
kPsfj;JwpQ;riy
mjpfupf;Fk;
47. K
+
Ruj;jiyj; J}z;Lk;
48. FUjpapy; Na
+
kl;lk; mjpfupj;J epakkl;lj;ij milAk;
49. Nra;ikkbe;j rpWFohapy; ePupd; kPsfj;JwpQ;riyAk; my;nl];uNuhd; mjpfupf;Fk;
50. FUjpf;fdtsT mjpfupf;Fk;. Fiwtile;j FUjpaKf;fk; mjpfupf;Fk;.
50 x 3 = 150 Gs;spfs;
- 15 - AL/2017/09/T-II
3) gpujhd cyfshtpa Rw;whly; gpur;rpidfisg; gl;baw;gLj;jp mtw;Wf;F gq;fspg;Gr;
nra;Ak; fhuzpfisAk; mtw;wpd; tpisTfisAk; cs;slf;fp xU tu;zid jUf.
1. cyfshtpa Rw;whlw;gpur;rpidfshtd g+Nfhsntg;gepiy cau;T
2. XNrhd;glyk; eyptiljy; my;yJ XNrhd; gilj;Nja;T
3. mkpy kio vd;gdthFk;.
4. ghiytdkhjy;
g+Nfhsntg;gepiy cau;T
5. ntg;g miyfs; my;yJ nrq;fPo;f;fjpu;fspd; xUgFjp jpUk;g mz;lntspf;Fs; nry;tJ
jLf;fg; gLjy; gr;ir ,y;y tpisT vdg;gLk;..
6. ,J tspkz;lyj;jpYs;s gr;ir ,y;y thAf;fshy; Vw;gLfpwJ.
gr;ir ,y;y thAf;fSk; mit tpLtpf;fg;gLk; Kjy;fSk
7. fhgdPnuhl;irl;L
8. capu;r;Rtl;L vupnghUl;fspd; jfdj;jpdhYk;>
9. fhLfis mopg;gjdhYk; tspkz;lyj;jpy; mjpfupf;fpwJ.
10. kPNjd;
11. tpyq;F Ntshz;ik tsu;g;Gf; fhuzkhf Nrjdg; gjhu;j;jq;fspd; fhw;wpd;wpa gpupif
fhuzkhf tspkz;lyj;jpy; mjpfupf;fpwJ.
12. FNshNuh GNshNuh fhgd;
13. mOj;j epiyapYs;s jputg;nghUl;fspd; ghtidhy; ( rptpwpfs;)
14. gioa Fsp&l;bfs;>
15 gioa tspr; rPuhf;fpfspy; ,Ue;J ntspNawy; Nghd;wtw;why; mjpfupf;fpwJ.
16. iejurdpd; xl;irl;Lfs;
17. mjpfupj;j tskhf;fpg; ghtidahy; mjpfupf;fpwJ.
18. ,g;gr;ir ,y;y thAf;fs; mjpfupg;gjdhy; gr;ir ,y;y tpisTk; mjpfupf;fpwJ.
19. ,jdhy; g+kpapd; Nkw;gug;ig te;jilAk; #upaf;fjpu; tPrypd; xUgFjp kPz;Lk;
mz;lntspf;Fs; tPrhjthW jLf;fg;gl;L
20. ,jdhy; g+Nfhs ntg;g KWjy; Vw;gLfpwJ.

21. rKj;jpuj;jpYs;s ePu; ntg;g tpupTf;Fl;gLtjdhy; fdtsT mjpfupg;G Vw;gLfpwJ. ;
22 JUtg; gFjpg; ghiwj;njhlu;fs; my;yJ gdpg;ghiwfs; cUFtjd; tpisthf fly;
kl;lk; caUk;.
23. fly; kl;lk; caUtjdhy; gy thoplq;fs; ,of;fg;gLfpd;wd.
24. tul;rp epiyikfs; mjpfupj;J ePu;g;ghrdj;jpw;fhd Nfs;tp mjpfupf;fpwwJ.
25. ntg;gepiy mjpfupg;Gf; fhuzkhf fhyepiyf; Nfhyq;fs;>
26. kiotPor;rpf; Nfhyq;fspy; khw;wk; Vw;gl;L tpyq;Ffs; jhtuq;fspd; guk;gypy; khw;wk;
Vw;gLfpwJ.
- 16 - AL/2017/09/T-II
27. ,jdhy; fhLfs; Gy;ntspfs; ghiytdq;fs; vd;gtw;wpd; vy;iyfs; khw;wkilAk;.
28. mj;Jld; tptrha cw;gj;jpfs; FiwtilAk;
29 fhl;Lj;jPmsT mjpfupg;gjdhy; jhtutu;f;fNfhyq;fspy; khw;wq;fs; Vw;gLk;.
30. capu;g;gy;tifikapy; ghjpg;G Vw;gLfpwJ.
XNrhd; glyj;Nja;T
31. mOj;j epiyapYs;s jputg;nghUl;fspd; ghtid>
32. Fsp&l;b tspr;rPuhf;fp my;yJ fhw;Wg; gjdpapd; ghtid mjpfupg;gjdhy;
33. tspkz;lyj;jpDs; FNshNuhGNshNuh fhgd; ntspNaw;wg;gLfpwJ..
34. ,J XNrhd; glyj;ij eyptilar; nra;Ak;..
35. ,jdhy; #upadpypUe;J Gw Cjhf;fjpu;fs; mjpfstpy; GtpNkw;gug;ig te;jilfpwJ.

36. #upadpypUe;J mjpfstpy; GtpNkw;gug;ig UV fjpu;fs; te;jiltjdhy; kdpjupy; fl;fhrk;
mjpfupg;gjw;fhd tha;g;G $Ljyhf cs;sJ..
37. mj;Jld; Njhy; Gw;WNeha; > kf;fspd; epu;g;g+ldk; Fiwtiljy; Nghd;wdTk;
Vw;gLfpwJ.
38. jhtuq;fspy; xspj;njhFg;G ghjpf;fg;gLtjhy; Fiwe;j tpisr;rYk; Vw;gLfpwJ.
mkpy kio
39. capu;r;Rtl;L vupnghUl;fspd; kpifahd jfdj;jpdhy; tspkz;lyj;jpy;
fe;jftPnuhl;irl;L>
40. iejurdpd; xl;irl;Lfs; Nghd;w thAf;fs; mjpfupf;fpd;wd
41. ,t;thAf;fs; ,t;thAf;fs; tspkz;ly epUld; jhf;fkile;J mkpy kioiaj;
Njhw;Wtpf;fpd;wd.

42. epidT kz;lgq;fs;;>
43. Rz;zhk;Gf;fl;llq;fs; ghjpf;fg;gLjy;.
44. khgps;fshy; Md fl;llq;fs; ghjpf;fg;gLjy;> my;yJ mopjy;
45. cNyhfq;fs; mupg;Gf; Fs;shjy; ,jdhy; fl;llq;fs; ghyq;fs ghjpf;fg;gLjy;
46. kz;tsk; Fiwjy; mjhtJ fyrpak;> kfdPrpak;; mad;fs; frpTwy; %yk;
ntspNaw;wg;gLjy;
47. kz;fiurypy; cs;s ghu cNyhfr; nrwpT mjpfupj;jy; my;yJ jhtuq;fspdhy; ghu
cNyhfq;fs; cs;nsLj;jy; mjpfupj;jy;
48. ePu;epiyfspy; mkpyj;jd;ik mjpfupj;jy;>
49. ePu; epiyfspy; ghucNyhfq;fs; fiutjhy; er;Rkl;lk; mjpfupj;jy;.
50. ,jdhy; kPd; cw;gj;jp Fiwjy; kPd;fspd; Kl;ilfs; ghjpf;fg;gLjy;> ePu;tho; mq;fpfspd;
vz;zpf;if Fiwjy;
51. fhLfspy; cs;s kuq;fs; ,iyfs; fUFtjhy; ,wj;jy;
- 17 - AL/2017/09/T-II
52. ,jdhy; xspj;njhFg;G Fiwtiljy; ke;ijfs;
53. kz;Ez;zq;fpfs; / Ntu;g;G+rzf;$l;lq;fs; ,wj;jy; iejurd; gjpj;jYf;fupa
Ez;zq;fpfs; ,wj;jy;
54. capu;g;gy;tifikapy; ,og;G Vw;gLjy;
4) a. Miyf; ifj;njhopypy; ,urhadr; nrad;KiwfspYk; ghu;f;f Ez;zq;fpr;
nrad;Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjhy; tpisAk; mD$yq;fisr; RUf;fkhf tpgupf;f?
b. tu;j;jfuPjpapy; gad;gLk; Ez;Zapu;r; nrad;Kiwfisg; gw;wpr; RUf;fkhf tpgupf;f?
a. Ez;zq;fpr; nrad;Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjhy; tpisAk; mD$yq;fs;
1. kypthd %yf;nghUl;fis gaDs;s tpisnghUl;fshf Ez;zq;fpfs; khw;Wfpd;wd.
2. Ez;zq;fpfs; cau;tsu;r;rp tPjKiladthf ,Ug;gjhYk;
3. mDNrgg;gy;tifikAiladthf ,Ug;gjdhYk;
4. gy;NtWgl;l fPo;g;gilfisg; gad;gLj;jf; $badthf ,Ug;gjdhYk;
5. cau; mDNrg tPjj;ijf; nfhz;bUg;gjdhYk;
6. jhf;fk; kpf tpiuthf cs;sJ.
7. Ez;zq;fpfshy; epfo;j;jg;gLk; jhf;fq;fs; ,aw;ifr; #oy; epge;jidfspNyNa
eilngWtjhy;
8. jhf;fq;fSf;F cau;ntg;gepiy
9. cau; mKf;fk;
10. mjpf rf;jp vd;gd mtrpakpy;iy
11. kdpj ciog;Gk; kuGuPjpahd ifj;njhopy; Kiwapd; gpuNahfKk; Njitg;gLk;.
b. Ez;zq;fpr; nrad;Kiwfs;
12. $l;nlUj; jahupg;G
13. capu;thA cw;gj;jp
14. juk; Fiwe;j cNyhfj; jhjpy; ,Ue;J cNyhfg; gpupj;njLg;G
15. Jk;G Cwitj;jy;
16. capu;g;gupfhuk; my;yJ tpdhfpupj; jaupg;G vd;gdthFk;.
$l;nlUj; jahupg;G
17. kpjkhd ntg;gKs;s <uypg;ghd fhw;Ws;s #oypy; Ez;zq;fpfspd; fyg;Gf;
Fbj;njhifahy; Nrjdg; nghUl;fs; gpupifailar; nra;ag;gLjy; $l;nlUj;
jahupg;ghFk;.
18. jhtukPjpfSk;> Nrjdg;grisfSk; gapu;j;jhtutpisr;riy mjpfupf;Fk; Neehf;fpy;
,lg;gLfpwJ.
19. ,r;nrad;Kiw gpujhdkhf Ez;zq;fpfspd; gpupifr; nraw;ghl;by; jq;fpAs;sJ.
VjhtJ 50 x 3 = 150 Gs;spfs;
- 18 - AL/2017/09/T-II
20. Ez;zq;fpfspd; gpupifr; nraw;ghl;bd; %yk; Nghrizg; nghUis ntsptpLk; jd;ik
,jpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
21. kpjkhd ntg;gKs;s <uypg;ghd fhw;Ws;s #oypy;
22. fhgd; - iejurd; tpfpjk; 30 : 1 vd;Dk; tpfpjk; Ngzg;gl;L
23. Ez;zq;fpfspd; fyg;Gf; Fbj;njhifahy; Nrjdg;nghUl;fs; tpiuthfg; gpupifailar;
nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
ehu;g;gupj;njLg;G
24. njd;de;Jk;G Cwitg;gjd; %yk; ehu; gupj;njLf;fg;gLfpwJ.
25. ehu;f;fyq;fs; eLnkd;wl;lhy; xd;Wlndhd;W ,izj;J itj;jpUf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
26. mit ePupy; Cwitf;fg;gLifapy; ePupYs;s fhw;Wtho;> fhw;wpd;wp tho; gf;uPupahf;fspdhy;
Ruf;fg;gLk;
27. fyg;Gw nehjpaq;fspdhy; ehu;fspYs;s nrYNyhR
28. ,ypf;dpd; vd;gd Nrjkilahj tifapy;
29. eLnkd;wl;L fiuar; nra;ag;gl;L ehu;fs; gpupj;njLf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
capu;thA cw;gj;jp
30. Nrjdg; gjhu;j;jq;fspd; fhw;wpd;wpa gpupifapdhy; capu;thA cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
31. ,r;nrad;Kiwapy; gpujhdkhf Methanococcus vd;w Ez;zq;fp gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
cNyhfg; gpupj;njLg;g
32. ,urhadj; jw;Nghriz nra;fpd;w gf;uPupahf;fshd
33. Thiobacillus ferroxidants , Thiobacillus thiooxidans Nghd;wtw;wpd; mDNrg;njhopw;ghl;bdhy;
34. ,Uk;Gk; ry;igl;Lk; nfhz;l cNyhfj; jhJf;fspy; ,Ue;J ( CuFeS
2
)
nrk;G gpupj;njLf;fg;gLfpwJ.
35. cNyhfj;jhjpd; xl;rpNaw;wj;jpd; %yk; mq;fpfs; H
2
SO
4
, Fe
2
vd;gtw;iwj;
Njhw;Wtpj;J nrk;ig CuSO
4
Mfepiyg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.
36. ,r;nrad;Kiw Ez;zq;fpfspd; ePu;Kiwaupj;jy; vdg;gLk;. ( Microbial leaching )
37. gpd;du; CuSO
4
fiury; kpd; gFf;fg;gl;L nrk;G cNyhfk; ngwg;gLfpwJ.
38. ,jd;NghJ cUthFk; FeSO
4
MdJ kPz;Lk; Ez;zq;fpfspd; njhopw;ghl;Lf;fhfr;
rf;fug;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
capu;g;gupfhuk;
39. fopTfisg; gbapwf;fk; nra;J mfw;Wtjw;F gbapwf;fy; vd;w Ez;zq;fpfspd;
jifikiag; gad;gLj;Jk; nrad;Kiw capu;g;gupfhuk; vdg;gLk;
40. ,jd;NghJ Fwpj;j Xu; #oypy; Vw;fdNt cs;s Ez;zq;fpfisg; gad;gLj;jp my;yJ
mr;#oypy; Ez;zq;fpfisg; GFj;jp ( Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;jy;)
41. khrhf;fpfspd; kPJ mit Nkw;nfhs;Sk; jhf;fj;ij Cf;Ftpj;J
42. mit rpijtilar; nra;J mfw;wg;gLfpd;wJ my;yJ mtw;wpd; er;Rj;jd;ikia
ePf;fg;gl;L er;rw;w nghUl;fshf khw;wg;gLfpwJ.
- 19 - AL/2017/09/T-II
43. Miyj;njhpw;rhiyfspy; czTg;nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jpapd;NghJ my;yJ . ,urhadg;
nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jpapd;NghJ
44 tpisthf;fg;gLk; fopTg;nghUl;fspd; rpijthf;fy; Ntfj;ij mjpfupg;gjw;Fk;
45. ePu;r;Rw;whly;fspy; Nru;f;fg;gLk; vz;nza;f; fopTfis mfw;Wtjw;Fk; / $l;nlUthf;fy;
Ntfj;ij mjpfupf;fr; nra;tjw;Fk; / $l;nlUthf;fy; Kiwapd; Ntfj;ij
mjpfupg;gjw;Fk;
46. cNyhff; ifj;njhopy; fopTfspy; ,Ue;J FNuhkpak;> ,urk; Nghd;w er;R cNyhfq;fis
mfw;Wtjw;Fk; ,J jw;NghJ gad;gLfpwJ.
tpdhfpupj;jahupg;G
47. ,uz;L gbfis cilaJ vjNdhiy cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fhNghitjNuw;W nehjpj;jy;
48. vjNdhy; mrw;wpf;fkpykhf khWk; xl;rpNaw;w khw;wPL
49. njd;id kuj;jpd; cupar;rhW my;yJ g+e;Jzupd; cupar; rhW gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
50. ,r;rhw;wpYs;s Rf;FNuhR kJtf;fyq;fshy; ( Saccharomyces cerevisisae)cw;gj;jp
nra;ag;gLfpd;w
51. Rf;FNuR my;yJ ,d;ntl;NuR nehjpaj;jpdhy; ePu;g;gFg;gile;J Fsf;Nfhrhf
khw;wg;gLfpwJ.
52. ,e;jf; FSf;NfhR kJtf;fyq;fspy; ( Saccharomyces cerevisisae) fhw;wpd;wp eilngWk;
mw;fNfhy; nehjpj;jypd; tpisthf vjNdhyhfTk;> fhgdPNuhl;irl;lhfTk; khw;wg;gLfpwJ.
53. vjNdhyhdJ Acetobacter aceti , Glucanobacter Mfpa gf;uPupahf;fspdhy;
fhw;Ws;s epiyapy; xl;rpNaw;wg;gl;L mrw;wpf;fkpykhf khw;wg;gLfpwJ. ,JNt
tpdhfpupahFk;.
5) a. guk;giuayFfspd; fl;likg;igAk; Gujq;fSldhd mtw;wpd; njhlu;igAk; tpgupf;f?
b. gw;wPupaf; fyq;fspy; kdpjg; guk;giuayFfspd; Kistifg; ngUf;fk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;
gpujhd gbKiwfisr; RUf;fkhf tpgupf;f?
c. tptrhaj;jpy; DNA kPsr;Nru;jy; njhopDl;gj;jpd; gpuNahfq;fis tpsf;Ff?
a. guk;giuayFfspd; fl;likg;igAk; Gujq;fSldhd mtw;wpd; njhlu;Gk;
1. xU gy;ngg;iul;Lr; rq;fpypj; njhFg;Gf;Fg; nghWg;ghd
2 DNA %yf; $wpd; xU gFjpapdJ iejurd; fhuj; njhlnuhOq;F guk;giuayF MFk;.
3. guk;giuayfpd; iejurd; fhuj; njhlnuhOq;F
4. Gujj;jpd; mkpNdh mkpy njhlnuhOq;ifj; jPukhdpf;fpwJ.
5. ,jdhy; Gujj;jpd; Kjyhd fl;likg;G jPu;khdpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
6. ntt;NtW guk;giuayFfspy; iejurd; fhuj; njhlnuhOq;F NtWgLtjhy;
7. ntt;Ntwhd Kjyhd fl;likg;Gila Gujq;fs; cUthfpd;wd.
VjhtJ 50 x 3 = 150 Gs;spfs;
- 20 - AL/2017/09/T-II
b. gw;wPupaf; fyq;fspy; kdpjg; guk;giuayFfspd; Kistifg; ngUf;fk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;
gpujhd gbKiwfs;
8. gad;ghLs;s Gujj;ij Njhw;Wtpf;Fk; guk;giuayif ,dq;fhZjy;
9. tpyq;F %yj;jpypUe;J DNA iag; gpupj;njLj;jy;
10. ,jw;F mlu;j;jpg; gbj;jpwd; ikaePf;fy; Kiwapd; %yk;
11. tPo;gbthf;fp DNA ia Ntwhf;fy;
12. Restriction Endo nuclease vd;w nehjpaj;jpd; nghUj;jkhd tifiag; gad;gLj;jp
GFj;jg;gl Ntz;ba guk;giuayif Jz;L Jz;Lfshf ntl;b vLj;jy;.
13. Agarose gel Electrophorosis ( Agrose gel kpd;dadk;) %yk; Jz;Lfis Ntwhf;fy;
14. xU DNA JUTNfhy; (Probe) Ig; gad;gLj;jp Ntz;ba DNA Jz;il ,dq;fhZjy;
15. gpsh];kpl;ilf; nfhz;l ( FopaTUtpy; rpwpa tl;l DNA %yf;$Wfs; nfhz;l)
nghUj;jkhd xU gw;wPupahit njupT nra;jy;
16. mwpag;gl;l Ez;Zapu; nfhy;ypfSf;F vjpu;g;gpay;igf; guk;giuayFfis cila
17. E.coli gf;uPupahf;fs; nghJthf ,jw;nfdg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
18. gw;wPupa gsh];kpl; DNA fhtpahfj; njhopw;gLk;. my;yJ gpsh];kpl; tpyq;Fg;
guk;giuayif tpUe;Jtoq;fpf; fyj;jpw;Fs; fhTk;.
19. ikaePf;fy; %yk; gpsh];kpl; Ntwhf;fg;gLk;.
20. Agarose gel Electrophorosis ( Agrose gel kpd;dadk;) %yk; jdpahf;fg;gLk;.
21. Kd;du; guk;giuayif ntl;b Ntwhf;fg;gad;gLj;jpa gad;gLj;jpa mNj tif Restriction
endo nuclease nehjpaj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp Plasmids ntl;lg;gLk;.
22. tpyq;F %yj;jpypUe;J ngwg;gl;l jdpahf;fg;gl;l DNA Jz;L gpsh];kpl;bd; ntl;lg;gl;l
gFjpAld; kPsr;Nru;if gpsh];kpl;ilj; Njhw;Wtpg;gjw;fhf
22. DNA ypNf]; nehjpaj;ijg;gad;gLj;jp ,izf;fg;gLk;.
23. kPsr;Nru;if;if Plasmid gw;wPupaf; fyj;jpDs; cl;Gfj;jg;gLk;
24. gf;uPupah khw;wk; (Transformation ) %yk; ,J eilngWk;.
25. rKjhaq;fisj; Njhw;Wtpg;gjw;F kPsr;Nru;f;if gfuPupahf;fs; tsu;g;Gf; fiurypy; ,lg;gLk;.
26. mjpf vz;zpf;ifahd gw;wPupah ( tpyq;Fg; guk;giuayfpd;) cUthf;fg;gLk;.
27. fhtp / Plasmid ,dhy; fhtg;gLk; vjpu;g;G rfjp nfhz;l milahsg;gLj;Jk;
guk;giuayFfisg; ( Marker gene) gad;gLj;jp
28. Nju;T nra;ag;gLk; Cl;fj;jpy;
29. ntw;wpfukhf khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;l rKjhaq;fs; ,dq;fhzg;gLk;.
30. cgNahfkhd tpyq;Fg; Gujq;fs; kPsr;Nru;if;if gf;uPupahtpdhy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk;.
31. cjhuzk; kdpj ,d;Rypd;
32. kdpj tsu;r;rp XNkhd; / kdpj FUjpAiwjw;fhuzpfs; / tsu;r;rp vjpu; XNkhd;
- 21 - AL/2017/09/T-II
c. tptrhaj;jpy; DNA kPsr;Nru;jy; njhopDl;gj;jpd; gpuNahfq;fs;
31. NtW ,dq;fspy; ,Ue;J GFj;jg;gl;l gaDs;s ,ay;GfSs;s mNdf gapu;j;jhtuq;fs;
tptrhaj;Jiwapy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
32. cjhuzk; Nrhsk;> Nrhahmtiu> gUj;jp> Canola Ngjq;fs; Nghd;wd.
32. gPilj;jLg;ghw;wy; my;yJ g+r;rpj; jLg;ghw;wy; Vw;gLjy;
33. Bacillus thuringiensis vd;Dk; gf;uPupahtpd; guk;giuayFfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;
34. gPilfspd; Flk;gpfSf;F er;Rj;jd;ikahd GweQ;Rfs; gapu;j;jhtuj;jpy; cUthf
gPilj;jLg;ghw;wy; my;yJ g+r;rpj; jLg;ghw;wy; Vw;gLfpwJ.
35. Nrhsk;> Nrhah mtiu gUj;jp > fNdhyh Nghd;wtw;wpy;
36. gg;ghrpapy; my;yJ gg;ghahtpy;
37. tisag;Gs;sp ituR Neha; my;yJ ituR Neha;fSf;F ( Ring spot)
38. vjpu;g;gpay;G ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLtjpy; ,j;njhopDl;gk; gad;gLfpwJ.
39. mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l Nghrizg; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;jy;
40. Ervinia vd;w gf;uPupahtpd; guk;giuayif
41. new;jhtuj;jpDs; GFj;jp
42. gpw;wh fNuhl;bid cau;thff; nfhz;l jq;fj;jhdpak; vd;Dk; mupr; cw;gj;jp
nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
43. ,jdhy; kdpju;fspy; MNuhf;fpak; Nkk;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
44. Agrobacterium tumifaciens vd;Dk; gf;uPupahtpd;
45. T
1
gpsh];kpl;Lfis fhtpahfg; gad;gLj;jp
46. Glyphosphate vd;Dk; gjhu;j;jj;jpw;F vjpu;g;Gj;jd;ikAs;s guk;giuayif
47. gau;j;jhtuq;fspDs; GFj;Jtjdhy;
48. g+z;L nfhy;ypfSf;F my;yJ fisnfhy;ypfSf;F vjpu;g;gpy;Gila jhtuq;fs;
cw;gj;jpnra;ag;gLfpd;wd.
49. cjhuzk; Nrhah mtiu
50. tul;rpia vjpu;f;Fk; jhtuq;fis cw;gj;jp nra;jy;
51. cg;G rfpg;Gj; jd;ikAs;s jhtuq;fis cw;gj;jp nra;jy;
6) gpd;tUtdtw;Wf;Fr; RUf;fkhd Fwpg;Gfs; jUf?
a. C
4
jhtuk;
1. Saccharum ( fUk;G) Zeamays . Amaranthus Nghd;w rpy jhtuq;fshFk;.
2. ,tw;wpd; ,iyapy; ,iyeLtpioaf;fyk;
3. fl;Lkly; fyk; Mfpatw;wpy; fhzg;gLk; gr;iraTUkzpfspy; fl;likg;G ntWghLfs;
cz;L.
VjhtJ 50 x 3 = 150 Gs;spfs;
- 22 - AL/2017/09/T-II
4. ,iyeLtpioaf;fyq;fspd; FopaTUtpy; / irw;nwhnrhy;ypy; nghRNgh <Ndhy; ig&Ntw;W
vd;Dk; 3 fhd; Nru;itahd CO
2
thq;fp cz;L.
5. ,J tspkz;ly fhgdPnuhl;irl;ilg; gjpj;J Kjy; cWjpahd tpisthf ehd;F fhgd;
Nru;itahd xl;rNyh mrw;Nw;iw cUthf;Ffpd;wJ.
6. ,j;jhf;fk; PEP carboxylase vd;Dk; nehjpaj;jpdhy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
7. gpd;du; xl;rNyh mrw;Nw;w;W xspj;jhf;fj;jpd;NghJ cUthd NADPH ia cgNahfpj;J
ehd;F fhgd; Nru;itahd kNyw;whf khw;wg;gLfpwJ.
8. kNyw;W KjYU ,izg;gpD}L fl;Lkly; fyq;fis mile;J xspAs;s Ntisfspy;
gpupe;J
9. ig&Ntw;iwAk; CO
2
itAk;> IjuridAk; tpLtpf;fpwJ.
10. ig&Ntw;W KjYU ,izg;gpD}lhf kPz;Lk; fl;Lkly;fyq;fis mile;J ATP ia
cgNahfpj;J nghRNgh <Ndhy; ig&Ntw;whf Gj;Japu;f;fg;gLfpwJ.
11. CO
2
MdJ fl;Lkly; gr;iraTUkzpapy; cs;s 5 fhgd; Nruu;itahd wpgpANyhR
gp];ngh;R Ngw;Wld; ,ize;J
12. cWjpaw;w 6 fhgd; Nru;itia cUthf;FfpwJ
13. ,j;jhf;fk; RuBP fhnghl;irNyR nehjpaj;jpdhy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
14. cWjpaw;w 6 fhgd; Nru;it cldbahfg; gpupe;J %d;W fhd; Nru;itahd
nghRNghfpsprupf;fkpyj;ij cUthf;Fk;.
15. ,J xspj;jhf;fj;jpd; NghJ cUthd ATP apd; xUgFjpiaAk; kNyw;W gpupifailAk;
NghJ cUthd NADPH KOtijAk; gad;gLj;jp nghrNghfpspruy;bifl;lhfj;
jho;j;jg;gLk;
16. nghrNghfpspruy;bifl;bd; xU gFjp njhluhd jhf;fq;fspdhy; n`f;NrhR nty;ykhf
khw;wg;gLk;.
17. nghrNghfpspruy;bifl;bd ngUk;gFjp njhluhd jhf;fq;fspdhy; RuMP Mf khw;wg;gl;L
gpd; kpFjp ATP ia cgNahfpj;J wpgpANyhR gp];ngh;R Ngw;whfg; Gj;Japu;f;fg;gLk;.
b. Mz; ,dg; ngUf;fj; njhFjpapy; XNkhd;fspd; rPuhf;fk;
1. guptff;fPo; GnRH Ir; Ruf;fpwJ.
2. ,J Kw;fgr;Rug;gpia
3. mile;J FSH ,
4. LH vd;gdtw;iwr; Ruf;fj; J}z;LfpwJ.
5. FSH MdJ tpe;jhFfyq;fs; tpe;Jf;fyq;fshf tpUj;jpailtijg; g+uzg;gLj;Jtjw;F
6. Nrl;Nlhypapd; fyq;fisj; J}z;b
7. tpe;Jg;gpwg;ig Muk;gpj;J itf;fpwJ.
8. LH MdJ tpijapd; Nybf;fpd; fyq;fisj; J}z;b
- 23 - AL/2017/09/T-II
9. Testosterone vd;Dk; XNkhdpd; cw;gj;jpiaj; J}z;LfpwJ.
10. Testosterone MdJ %yTapu; Nkyzpf;fyq;fspd; tsu;r;rpiaAk; tpUj;jpiaAk;
J}z;LfpwJ.
11. ,jd; %yk; tpe;Jg;gpwg;Gf;fyq;fs; tpe;Jf;fshf khWtij mjpfupf;fpwJ.
12.; Jizg;ghypay;GfisAk; ,J mjpfupf;fpwJ.
13. Testosterone mjpfupf;f vjpu; kPst+l;ly; nghwpKiwapdhy; GnRH Ruj;jy;
epNuhjpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
14. ,jdhy; FSH, LH Ruj;jy; FiwtilfpwJ.
15. Testosterone MdJ LH ,d; Ruj;jiyf; Fiwg;gjw;F NeubahfTk; Kw;fgr;Rug;gpapd; kPJ
jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jyhk;.
16. tpe;Jg;gpwg;G kpftpiuthf eilngw;why; Sertoli ,d; fyq;fspy; ,Ue;J inhibin
Ruf;fg;gLk;.
17. ,J FSH Ruj;jiyf; Fiwf;Fk;.
18. tpe;Jg;gpwg;ghf;fy; tPjk; Fiwe;jhy; inhibin Ruf;fg;glkhl;lhJ vdNt FSH Ruj;jy;
mjpfupj;J tpe;Jg;gpwg;g mjpfupf;Fk;.
c. cupaf; nfhz;L nry;yy;
1. czT nfhz;L nry;;yy; vt;tpioag; gFjpapypUe;J Muk;gpf;fpwNjh mJ %y ,lk;
(Source) vdg;gLk;.
2. czT vg;gFjpiar; nrd;wilfpwNjh mJ jhop (Sink) vdg;gLk.
3. ,iy eLtpioaf;fyq;fspDs; xspj;njhFg;gpd;%yk; Rf;FNuhR nty;yk;
cw;gj;jpahf;fg;gl;L cupa ,ioaj;jpd; nea;aupf;FohapD}lhf mJ fiury;epiyapy;
nfhz;Lnry;yg;gLfpwJ.
4. ,iy eLtpioaf;fyq;fspYs;s (%y,lk; ) Rf;FNuhR ,iyeuk;Gfspd; cupa
,ioaj;jpYs;s ,lkhw;Wk; fyq;fspD}lhf ( rpwg;gile;j Njhoikf;fyq;fs;)
5. nea;aupf; FohapDs; nrwpTg;gbj;jpwDf; nfjpuhf mDNrg rf;jpiag; gad;gLj;jp
capu;g;ghd Kiwapy; flj;jg;gLfpwJ.
6. ,e;epfo;r;rp cupar;RikNaw;wy; vdg;gLk;.(Phloem loading)
7. ,e;epfo;r;rpapdhy; nea;aupf;FohapDs; fiuar;nrwpT mjpfupf;f ePuOj;jk; mjDs;
FiwtilfpwJ.
8. ,jdhy; fho; ,ioaj;jpypUe;J ePuhdJ gpurhuzk; %yk; nea;aupf;Fohia milfpwJ.
9. ,jdhy; mjDs; ePu; epiyapay; mKf;fk; mjpfupf;fpwJ.
10. ,r;Rf;FNuhRf;fiury; gpd;du; Nrkpg;G mq;fj;jpw;F my;yJ jhopf;F mKf;fg;
gha;r;rypd; %yk; jpzTg;gha;r;ryhf ke;jkhd Kiwapy; nfhz;L nry;yg;gLfpwJ.
11. Nrkpg;G mq;fj;jpy; ( jhopapy) Rf;FNuhR ,lkhw;wf;fyq;fspD}lhf capu;g;ghd
Kiwapy; nrwpTg;gbj;jpwDf;nfjpuhf
- 24 - AL/2017/09/T-II
12. Nrkpg;G mq;ff ;fyq;fSf;Ff; flj;jg;gLk;. ,r;nrad;Kiw cupar;Rikapwf;fk; vdg;gLk;.
13. ,jdhy; nea;aupf;FohapDs; ePuOj;jk; mjpfupf;Fk;. ,jdhy; Gwg;gpurhuzk; %yk;
ePuhdJ fho; ,ioaj;ij milfpwJ.
14. cupaf; nfhz;L nry;yy; ,UjpirapYk; eilngWfpwJ. nfhz;L nry;yg;gLk;
gjhu;j;jKk; cau;thdJ.
15. cupaf; nfhz;L nryy;ypd;NghJ Rf;FNuhR mkpNdhmkpyq;fs;>
16. tpw;wkpd;fs;> jhtutsu;r;rpg; gjhu;j; jkhd vjpyPd; /
jhtuj;jpw;Fg; gpuNahfpf;Fk; rpy gjhu;j;jq;fs; / K
+
PO
4
3-
Nghd;w mNrjdg; gjhu;j;jq;fs;,
Nghd;wd. nfhz;L nry;yg;gLk;.
VjhtJ 51 x 3 = 153 Gs;spfs; Max 150 Gs;spfs;